Do female leaders get penalized for being “too” assertive? The answer is definitely yes, according to our research. But there are big exceptions to that rule that give women plenty of leeway to take charge. It isn’t hard to find claims that people react differently to women than men in leadership roles. Supporters of Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign argue that calls for her to smile more, or “yell” less, are evidence that she is held to a different standard than her arguably grumpier (male) opponents. A banbossy campaign by Facebook Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg sought to eradicate a word that is said to be aimed at women but not men.